Insomnia is characterized by difficulty imitating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, waking up in the middle of the night and early-morning awakening with inability to return to sleep. One is diagnosed with insomnia if the aforementioned sleep difficulty occurs at least 3 nights per week and present for at least 3 months, and the sleep disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, educational, academic, behavioral, or other important areas of functioning.
The causes of insomnia are multifaceted and multidirectional. The course of insomnia can be briefly classified into three factors:
Predisposing factors: genetic, excessive anxiety, perfectionism
Perpetuating factors: poor sleeping habits, distorted belief about sleep, constant stress and aforementioned precipitating factors
How to deal with it?
How to deal with it?
Improve sleep hygiene
  • Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for insomnia —such as sleep restriction therapy, stimulus control therapy and relaxation training, etc.

  • Emotional regulation: explore the psychological factor(s) that lead(s) to insomnia, deal with stress and emotional problems properly

  • Medication, such as hypnotic, antidepressants and tranquilizer, etc help improve sleep. Yet, it must be prescribed by specialists to avoid drug dependence or resistance.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is characterized by repeated episodes of shallow or paused breathing during sleep as a result of repeated blockage in the upper respiratory tract. When the respiratory tract is completely blocked, apnea occurs. OSA is usually accompanied by loud snoring. Yet, it is worth noting that snoring does not equate diagnosis of OSA.
People with OSA are usually marked by the following symptoms:
Nocturnal Symptoms
  • Loud snoring, snore may pause occasionally and becomes loud again suddenly

  • Mouth breathing when sleeping

  • Awakening

Daytime Symptoms
  • Headaches

  • Daytime fatigue, sleepiness

  • Difficulty concentrating, unresponsiveness, memory deterioration

  • Grumpiness

How to deal with it?
How to deal with it?
Regular exercise, Weight control
Sleep on one side to reduce the chance of blockage in the respiratory tract by the tongue
Use positive airway pressure, make use of air pressure to maintain a smooth airway
Use tooth tray: fix the lower jaw to a upfront position to prevent blockage in the respiratory tract by the tongue
Surgery: tonsil gland and proliferative resection

REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)

Definition ‘REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD)’ is a type of sleep disorder (i.e., parasomina) that occurs during Rapid Eye Movement sleep. REM sleep behaviour disorder is considered to be an important preclincal symptom of Parkinson’s disease.As there is a lack of muscle atonia during rapid eye movement (when dreaming occurs). Patients act out their dreams and these dream enactment behaviours consist of a constellation of features including shouting, punching, kicking, and rolling, leading to sleep related violence and injuries.
Act out their dreams (both behaviourally and verbally), which are usually violent
During sleep: Dream-enacting behaviours including kicking, pnching, jumping off or from the bed (often accompanined by chasing or violent scenes in dream)
During sleep: speak loudly, laugh, yell, etc
Remember the content of dream vividly
How to deal with it?
How to deal with it?
Self protection measures and home safety: Add cushions or comfort pads along the bedside, set up bed guardrails, remove dangerous items in the room

Medication: Appropriate medication can relieve the situation, together with exercise, it is possible to dealy the onset for more than 10 years.